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The rapid decline of all dead organisms and plant-eating (detritivores) in rivers and the extinction of many species can have serious consequences. Now through a new study, an international team of scientists has found out about the biodiversity of rivers and these organisms. Researchers have investigated the close relationship between detritus (detritivores) and the decomposition or destruction of plant litter that feeds on dead organisms and plants in rivers. The greater the number of detritus in the water, the faster the process of decomposition or purification. Scavengers include aquatic insects such as stoneflies, caddisflies, mayflies and craneflies, and crustaceans and freshwater prawns and crabs. Co-study Professor Bradley Cardinal from the Department of Ecosystem Science and Management explained that decomposition is a biological process that is important for life. That said, the part of the plant that is not eaten by animals eventually decomposes and must be recycled so that biologically essential nutrients can be released back into the environment where they can be reused by plants . If the process of decomposition does not take place, or slows down, then life comes to a standstill. Phosphorus, nitrogen and other nutrients that we need as humans are not available biologically until they are decomposed and recycled. But all over the world, populations of such organisms are declining and disappearing at an alarming rate, which eat and destroy dead animals, plant remains, organic matter. The cardinal pointed out that there is good evidence that the extinction rate of these creatures is 1,000 to 10,000 times faster than the historical record. There is a big question about whether the diversity of these aquatic insects and crustaceans is important, Cardinal said. If they go extinct, will this biological process of smelting or decomposition slow down or not? We didn't have an exact answer before this study. We did not know how the extinction of these animals would affect the ecosystem's ability to sustain life, or if other organisms such as bacteria and fungi would fill the ecosystem and complete the same level of decomposition. In this study, 75 scientists analyzed the decomposition or thawing of 38 rivers. Which are in 23 countries on 6 continents in size, depth and natural habitats. Most of the streams selected by the researchers had rocky layers and dense vegetation growing along the banks of rivers. The researchers collected a mixture of identical plant litter from nine species collected at different locations around the world and distributed it among the study participants. The litter mixture was placed inside coarse-mesh and fine-mesh bins. The cardinal explained that these two types of litter bags helped us measure the amount of decomposition carried out by harmful organisms and microbial organisms in rivers. We observed that there was very little decomposition in the fine mesh bag litter that was not accessible to aquatic insects. He said this suggests that bacteria and fungi alone cannot meet the amount of decomposition needed in river streams and ecosystems. The cardinal said that when we excluded these organisms, we saw a drastic drop in decomposition rates, meaning other organisms did not compensate for them. When all detritivores were excluded, as would be the case after their extinction, we saw a more than 50 percent reduction in decomposition in river streams. The researchers found that decomposition rates were much higher in river streams with abundant all-eaters (detritivores). They reported that the association between diversity and decomposition was stronger in the tropics and absent in boreal regions than in temperate regions, and that abundance and biomass were significant in temperate and boreal regions, but not in tropical regions. According to the research team, the results of the study suggest that the extinction of organisms that decompose or clean up waste in rivers is changing everything, and that the impact is particularly high in tropical regions, where people who eat all things (Detritivores) The diversity is already relatively low. This study is published in Nature Communications. The cardinal pointed out that the study results are not surprising. The abundance and size of all detritvores are known to have a great influence on decomposition. So river streams that have more of these or that have larger invertebrates, such as large crabs and shrimp, have a lot of decomposition there. The researcher said that we also found that diversity, the number of different species that were in river streams, was one of the most prominent predictors of decomposition. Abundance, among varying size and diversity, accounts for 82 percent of all global variation in decomposition. This means that as these animals go extinct, we will also lose the ability to decompose and recycle biologically essential materials that are essential for the survival and development of other organisms.