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Context: Climate scientists say the Bay of Bengal, where Cyclone ‘Yaas’ has formed, is at least two degrees warmer than what is normal for this time of the year. Background: Generally, cyclones in the Bay of Bengal are ferocious and cause significant devastation. This year, the north Bay of Bengal is exceptionally warm with temperatures up to 32 degrees Celsius. Recent cyclones in Bay of Bengal: 1. Amphan was a super cyclone that ravaged West Bengal in March last year. It was the strongest storm that hit India’s eastern coast since the super cyclone of 1999, that struck Paradip, Odisha. 2. Before Amphan, Fani in 2019 also hit Odisha, causing immense damage that lasted weeks. What’s the concern? In the last four years 12 cyclones have formed in the Bay. Out of five cyclones that the Indian coastline witnessed in a year, four originated in the Bay of Bengal and only one in the Arabian Sea. 1. There is also increasing frequency of cyclone formation in the North Indian Ocean in recent years. Why Bay of Bengal is the hot-bed for cyclonic storms? 1. The vast low pressure created by the warm water of the ocean. 2. The Bay of Bengal shaped like a trough that makes it more hospitable for storms to gain force. 3. The high sea surface temperature makes matters more worse in the Bay triggering the intensity of the storms. 4. The Bay of Bengal also gets more rainfall with sluggish winds and warm air currents around it that keep temperatures relatively high all year. 5. The constant inflow of fresh warm water from the perineal rivers like Bramhaputra, Ganga makes it further impossible to mix with the cooler water below. 6. Lack of landmass between the Pacific Ocean and the Bay of Bengal tend cyclonic winds to move into the coastal areas causing heavy rainfall. 7. The absence of air movements from north-western India towards the Bay in the post-monsoon phase is also another reason for the chances of cyclones in the Bay of Bengal. What geographical advantage the Arabian sea has? 1. It is much calm as the stronger winds help dissipate the heat. 2. Lack of constant fresh water helps the warm water to mix with the cool water underneath, reducing the surface temperature. 3. The Arabian Sea enjoys the locational advantage as the winds from the Pacific Ocean encounter the Western Ghats and the Himalayas cutting down on its intensity and sometimes never reaching the Arabian Sea.